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Sacred mechanical statues built in Egypt and Greece were believed to be capable of wisdom and emotion.
Wilhelm Schickard drew a calculating clock on a letter to Kepler.
Jonathan Swift published Gulliver's Travels, which includes this description of the Engine, a machine on the island of Laputa: "a Project for improving speculative Knowledge by practical and mechanical Operations " by using this "Contrivance", "the most ignorant Person at a reasonable Charge, and with a little bodily Labour, may write Books in Philosophy, Poetry, Politicks, Law, Mathematicks, and Theology, with the least Assistance from Genius or study."George Boole set out to "investigate the fundamental laws of those operations of the mind by which reasoning is performed, to give expression to them in the symbolic language of a calculus", inventing Boolean algebra.
Kurt Gödel showed that sufficiently powerful formal systems, if consistent, permit the formulation of true theorems that are unprovable by any theorem-proving machine deriving all possible theorems from the axioms.
He also invented the binary numeral system and envisioned a universal calculus of reasoning (alphabet of human thought) by which arguments could be decided mechanically.
Leibniz worked on assigning a specific number to each and every object in the world, as a prelude to an algebraic solution to all possible problems.
Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes was held in the UK and among the papers presented were John Mc Carthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.